**28 Sept 2011– DIACAP is being changed to the DoD Risk Management Framework. 8510.01 is being changed to reflect the NIST SP 800-37, with security controls matching that of the NIST SP 800-53. This information is being released on the DIACAP Knowledge Service**
This activity is marked by actually putting the IA Controls into action. This means not only coordinating with software and/or system developers and engineers, but testing the IA Controls once they have been implemented.
Execute the DIACAP Implementation Plan
Executing the DIACAP Implementation Plan is the most critical part of the DIACAP process because it focuses almost exclusively on the assigned security controls. Your system may very well get an authorization to operate but if it does not have the appropriate security controls it could be a detriment to an organization and anything its is attached to by being an enormous vulnerability that is easily hacked or, more likely, a wasteful product that is very difficult to support in the long term. If anything, it is more important to get the IA Controls implemented than it is to get the system approved although the process is such that you should not have one without the other.
IA Controls are not just about security but include what the Air Force has called SISSU which stands for security, interoperability, sustainability, supportability and usability. All these features are checked annually under the DIACAP (activity #4).
The time it takes to implement the system should factor in any additional time it might take to implement and test the IA Controls.
Resistance to the Implementation of IA Controls
Be prepared for panic and gnashing of teeth when you tell them what is needed. Implementing the security controls can be a challenge. The cost, time and energy it takes to accomplish all the IA Controls can be intimidating at first glance.
Some engineers, program managers and system owners will resist the implementation of IA Controls, particularly if it is a legacy system that has operated just fine for years without any security controls. When dealing with reluctant customers the best thing you can do is come to meetings armed with federal regulations, operating instructions and mandates that have been issued by the DoD and signed by generals. You should be familiar enough to fully inform the customer of the risks associated with being non-compliant. Make sure that they are informed about how visible the system is in the eMASS database. Many times system owners will completely ignore regulations until they are absolutely forced to comply and by then they don’t have funding or time to comply.
Methods of Implementing the IA Controls
The technicians and/or engineers who are actually developing the system and installing the IA Controls should know about the tools that will make their job much easier.
For Windows systems those implementing the IA Controls should know about the following:
- Security Technical Implementation Guide (STIG)
- Security Guides
- Gold Disk
- Federal Standard Configuration Operating Systems (if applicable)
For Unix/Linux Systems:
Implementing Windows IA Controls
The quickest way to implement IA Controls on Windows systems is to use automated methods first to find and implement as many technical security features as possible and use STIGS and security guides for the remaining security controls that should be implemented. On a mission system, it is important to know that some security controls may break some critical functions. Some security controls can be ignored, some can be mitigated, some can have waivers and others absolutely must be complied with in some way, shape or form.
Federal Standard Configuration Operating Systems (if applicable)
Windows based systems with connections to the Global Information Grid may need to use a Federal Standard Configuration OS. This disk has various names. The USAF calls this disk the Standard Desktop Configuration (SDC) and Standard Server Configuration (SSC) for servers. Some federal organizations have Federal Desktop Common Configuration (FDCC), the Navy has NMCI systems and Army has Gold Master systems. These are locked down versions of Windows XP or Vista systems (depending on the version) that are only supposed to be altered under specialized circumstances.
These standard configurations may pose as a serious technical issue for mission systems that are not standard. Sustainment/Supportability funding might also be an issue for mission systems as SDC is mostly designed for systems with basic computing needs in a base area networks that uses devices like Microsoft System Management Service (SMS) to conduct automated pushes from all systems on the network. Mission systems usually have to be tested separately in order make sure new upgrades and IAVA’s don’t negatively affect the mission. Your system may be able to attain a waiver for the standard configuration. This configuration may not be needed for Windows systems not connected to the GIG.
DISA Gold DISK
DISA has disk called the Gold Disk that can scan for Category 1, 2 and 3 vulnerabilities according the applicable Mission Assurance Level. It can also automatically fix these vulnerabilities for Windows NT/XP and Vista. This scan should also be run on the standard configuration systems. You’ll be surprise how many vulnerabilities will show up even on standard configurations such as USAF SDC.
The challenges with the Gold Disk include the following: 1) there may be false positives. For example, Gold Disk may tell you that the Guest account should be removed. But Guest account is a built-in feature in Windows so it can only be disabled. 2) Some Category 1’s and 2’s may not be fixable on mission systems (especially legacy systems). In which case, it may have to be marked as non-compliant in the appropriate IA Controls. 3) Not all vulnerability Categories match up with the IA Controls so some of it will be up to your discretion. Also, the Cat 1, 2, or 3 results might not be applicable to your system. For example, you may have Internet Explorer vulnerabilities that pop-up on a system that will not actually use port 80 or the web at all.
Gold Disk is automated but it still needs a fairly technical & security oriented person to interpret the data.
Implementing UNIX/LINUX IA Controls
Unlike Windows there is no standard configuration for any UNIX environment. Currently, there are no plans published to change this. UNIX does have an automated script called the Security Readiness Review (SRR). Running the script requires solid skills in the command line. SRR picks up a lot of false positives so the technician/engineer running the script really needs to know what is running on the system and what does not need to be running. UNIX knowledge is really a must to use the SRR effectively.
The UNIX SRR Scripts are supported on the following platforms and versions:
Solaris 2.5.1 through Solaris 10; HP-UX 11.0, HP-UX 11.11; Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 and 4; and AIX 4.3. – http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/SRR/index.html
STIGS and Security Guides
IA Control ECSC-1, Security Configuration Compliance directs the use of security guides and STIGS. DISA and the National Security Agency have created lots of security guides for Windows and accompanying applications. Implementation of these guides will satisfy many of the other IA Controls.
The IA Controls will likely be most of the work you do on any system. Even if you have a MAC III, Public, there are a lot of them. They require everything from developing and/or checking documentation, installing security features, ensuring proper network configurations to checking personnel and physical security at each site. The DIACAP Knowledge Service has several templates detailing each group of IA Controls according to Mission Assurance Levels.
Continuity – COxx – IA Control
The COxx series of the IA Controls deal with the continuity of the system. Developing a comprehensive continuity, disaster recovery, emergency management plan for the system will satisfy many of the COxx IA Controls. Your division, squadron, flight or company will usually have some sort of emergency management plans and disaster recovery instructions you can use. The old DITSCAP System Security Authorization Agreement had Appendix L, Contingency Plan. Many of the requested documents and process likely already exist so it maybe a matter of just finding them or re-packaging them.
Security Design and Configuration – DCXX – IA Control
The DCxx series deals with designing and maintaining a secure baseline. Dealing with these IA Controls will require and intimate knowledge of the systems software, hardware, and network configuration. If you don’t know the configuration of the system you should have a highly knowledgeable technician or engineer on hand who does. You will need to know the DoD policy to understand what is fully required or if the control is even applicable. Network and computer security policies such as AFI-33-202 for the USAF will be a good help. Systems that have been developed outside of the DoD and US services policies will have a real hard time with these IA Controls.
Enclave Computing Environments – EVxx – IA Controls
Enclave computing environments are IA Controls that deal with security features within the local area network or enclave. It will help to have some understanding of network security because some of the IA Controls address things like VPN and Remote Authentication.
Identification & Authentication – IAxx – IA Controls
Identification & Authentication address specific issues that deal with logon and passwords.
Physical & Environment – PExx – IA Controls
Physical & Environmental IA Controls deal with physical security of the sites, safety issues and environmental controls such as humidity systems.
Personnel – PRxx – IA Controls
These IA Controls deal with the training and access of each personnel with direct contact with the system.
Vulnerability and Incident Management – Vixx – IA Controls
The issues in these few IA Controls maybe addressed in the contingency plan. Elements within DITSCAP System Security Authorization Agreement had Appendix K, Incident Response may also be used for these IA Controls.
POA&M: When Systems Can Not be Fix
Some legacy systems can not comply with applicable IA Controls without spending millions of dollars that the program office and/or system owners don’t currently have. In these cases it’s important to have a “get well plan”. The document is called a Plan of Action & Milestone (POA&M). The POA&M details what IA Controls have not been met, when they will and how. The EITDR eMASS system can automatically create a POA&M document once all the IA Controls have been entered, Validated and Approved (others eMASS systems might be able to do this as well).
Conduct Validation Activities
Validation includes Certification Test & Evaluation (CT&E) and Security Test & Evaluation (ST&E). Certification Test & Evaluation is completed on a system on which IA Controls have been applied in a test environment. The CT&E is conducted to make sure all the IA Controls have been applied on a functional system. Once has been proven to work in a testing environment with all the applicable technical IA Controls applied the ST&E can be completed with a system in an operational environment.
Techniques used in the CT&E and ST&E may include Gold Disk Scan, SRR (UNIX), penetration testing (black box, white box, gray box), network vulnerability scan, source code scan, web application scan, or simply a manual check of each of the security controls using the security guides. During and ST&E on the site it is also helpful to make sure there is proper contingency plans, physical & operational security.