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Risk Management Framework is implemented throughout an organization.
NIST 800-39, Manage Information Security Risk, describes how to implement risk within t three layers (or tiers) of of an organization:
Tier 1: Organization level
Tier 2: Mission/Business Process level
Tier 3: Information System level
Tier 1: Organization Level risk management
Tier one addresses security from the organizations perspective. The activities include the implementation of the first component of risk management, risk framing. Risk framing provides context of all the risk activities within an organization, which affects the risk activities of tier 1 & 2. The output of risk framing is Risk Management Strategy. In tier 1 the organization establishes and implements governance structure that are in compliance with laws, regulations and policies. Tier 1 activities include establishment of the Risk Executive Function, establishment of the risk management strategy and determination of the risk tolerance.
Tier 2: Mission/Business Process Level risk management
Tier 2 risk management activities include: 1) defining the mission/business processes to support the organization. 2) Prioritize the mission/business process with respect to the long term goals of the organization. 3) Define the type of information needed to successfully execute the mission/business processes, criticality/sensitivity of the information and the information flows both internal and external of the information.
Having a risk-aware process is an important part of tier 2. To be risk-aware senior leaders/executives need to know: 1) types of threat sources and threat events that could have an adverse affect the ability of the organizations 2) the potential adverse impacts on the organizational operations and assets, individuals, the Nation if confidentiality, integrity, availability is compromised 3) the organization�s resilience to such an attack that can be achieved with a given mission/business process
Tier 3: Information System risk management
From the information system perspective, tier 3 addresses the following tasks:
1) Categorization of the information system
2) Allocating the organizational security control
3) Selection, implementation, assessment, authorization, and ongoing
Chapter 3 focuses on the step to have a comprehensive risk management program. The tasks discussed include:
For more information go to: http://elamb.org/training-certification800-39-manage-information-security-risks/
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DIACAP to DIARMF: Assessment Authorization
With the move from certification and accreditation (C&A) to risk management framework, comes a few new terms. “C&A” will be replaced with assessment and authorization. Even though “information assurance (IA) controls” will be call “security controls”, the definition and work is still the same, but the hope is that its done continuously and more cost-effective.
Certification (NIST Assessment) – Comprehensive evaluation of an information system assessment of IA Controls/Security Controls to determine the extent to which the controls are implemented correctly and operating as intended. That means when evaluated, they produce the desired outcome. An assessment is about gathering information to providing the factual basis for an authorizing official (Designated Accrediting Authority) to render a security accreditation decision
Accreditation (NIST Authorization) – Security accreditation is the official management decision to operate (DAA – Formal approval of the system). Authorization is given by a senior agency official (upper-management/higher head quarters/combat commander). The official should have the authority to oversee the budget and business operations of the information system explicitly accept the risk to operations, assets, individuals. They accept responsibility for the security of the system and are fully accountable for the security of the system.
“The official management decision given by a senior organization“The official management decision given by a senior organizational official to authorize operation of an information system and to explicitly accept the risk to organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation based on the implementation of an agreed-upon set of security controls.”
– NIST SP 800-37 rev 1
March 14, 2014, UPDATE RMF – DoD IT:
DIARMF will be known as Risk Management Framework for DoD IT.
Assurance, Assurance/DIACAP, Assurance/DITSCAP, Assurance/Netcentric, Assurance/SSAA, C&A, Computer Security, DIARMF, DoD Risk Management Framework, DoD RMF, EITDR, FISMA, information assurance, ISSEP, Main Digg, nist, NR-KPP, Risk Management Framework, security, Security Awareness, Security Awareness/ISSA, Security Management
DIACAP to DIARMF: Intro
image of diacap to rmf
DoD Chief Information Officer (formerly Assistant Security Defense), in collaboration with the Department of the Navy CIO, has developed a DoDI 8500.2 to NIST SP 800-53 IA control mapping (2010). More DIACAP Knowledge Service.
DIACAP Knowledge Service
On the DIACAP Knowledge Service goto “C&A Transformation”. This page introduces some of the coming changes from Certification & Accreditation changes to the Risk Management Framework seen in NIST SP 800-37.
DIACAP has “Risk Management Framework Transformation Initiative” underway that provides information on use of NIST SP 800-53, NIST SP 800-37, CNSS Instruction 1253.
The site introduces changes being made to DoDD 8500.01, DoDI 8500.2, DoDI 8510.01 and other documents that will be aligned with NIST 800 and FISMA 2013. They will feature an attempt to keep up with new arising cyberthreats, vulnerabilites and security incidence using real-time, “continuous monitoring” technologies such as HP ArcSight, McAfee ESM, ePO, NSP, Retina, Nessuss and other near real-time active monitoring systems.
road to diarmf
Why DIACAP to DIARMF?
Federal government has gotten more serious about security. They realize that enterprise level security and process is a continuous and expensive business. The old certification & accreditation process is not only long and expensive but so slow that it cannot keep up with the constant changes of information technology.
Risk based/cost effective security means creating security systems and policies that focus on “adequate security”. The Executive Branch Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines as adequate security, or security commensurate with risk, to include the magnitude of harm resulting from the unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction of information. The feds are also attempting to make the process of implementing and evaluating security controls by creating as much paper-less automation as possible.
note IMHO: Since technology is changing at a rate of what Ray Kurzweil calls “accelerating returns” I think for governments and organizations stuck in “static policy” based systems there is no way they can ever keep up with information technology without revolutionary shift in thinking. Google is probably the closest to understanding what is actually happening. The best any of us can do is observe.
Source documents for all U.S. Federal information security:
OMB A-130 – Management of Federal Information Resources
FISMA – Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002
Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 (FISMA, 44 U.S.C. § 3541) enacted as Title III of the E-Government Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-347)
Required for all government agencies to develop, document, and implement an agency-wide information security program to provide information security for the information and systems that support the operations and assets of the agency Applies to contractors and other sources.
The federal government has created various acts/laws to implement to changes to the C&A process to a more risk management approach and emphasize a risk-based policy for cost-effective security. These acts include (but are not limited to):
- Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 (amended as of 2013 April)
- The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995
- The Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996 (Clinger-Cohen Act) supported by Office of Management and Budget (OMB) through Circular A-130, Appendix III, Security of Federal Automated Information Resources
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Who Creates and/or Manages the NIST 800?
This NIST 800 is a well thought out set of federal security standards that DoD and the Intel world is moving too. It aligns with International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electotechnical Commissions (IEC) 27001:2005, Information Security Management System (ISMS).
NIST 800 is updated and revised by the following organizations:
Joint Task Force Transformation Initiative Interagency (JTFTI) Working Group National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
JTFTI is made up of from the Civil, Defense, and Intelligence Communities. This working group reviews and updates the following documents
- NIST Special Publication 800-37, Revision 1 Guide for Applying the Risk Management Framework to Federal Information Systems: A Security Life Cycle Approach
- NIST Special Publication 800-39, Enterprise-Wide Risk Management: Organization, Mission, and Information Systems View
- NIST Special Publication 800-53, Revision 3 Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations
- NIST Special Publication 800-53A, Revision 1 Guide for Assessing the Security Controls in Federal Information Systems and Organizations: Building Effective Assessment Plans
These core documents are a standard on how to implement FISMA. The organization has done a good job of keeping NIST 800 inline with international standards of ISO 27001. The JTFTI is made up of ODNI, DoD, CNSS. This document is also publicly vetted.
Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI)
The DNI is a position required by Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004. This office serves as adviser to the president, Homeland Security and National Security Counsil as well and director of National Intelligence.
Department of Defense (DoD)
DoD is composed of (but not limited to) the USAF, US Army, DON and Marines. It is the most powerful military organization in recorded history.
Committee on National Security Systems (CNSS)
This committee was created to satisfy National Security Directive 42, “National Policy for the Security of National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems“,
the group has represtatives from NSA, CIA, FBI, DOD, DOJ, DIA and is focused on protecting the US crititcal infrastructure.
Public (review and vetting) – the draft is posted online on NIST.gov
Scadahacker – mappings NIST to International
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The Federal Information Security Amendments Act, H.R. 1163, Amends the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 (FISMA).
Main Points of FISMA 2002:
- Cost-effectively reduce information technology security risks
- Vulnerability Database System
- Maintain an inventory of major information systems
- Security Categorization of Federal IS by risk levels
- Minimum security requirements
- System Security planning process
- Annual review of assigned IS compliance
- Risk Management
The amendment has a few big changes to the previous 2002 version that will affect federal agencies. But two main ones the stood out for me is the emphasis on automation and the CISO position.
The FISMA Amendment was passed by the House of Representatives (4 April 2013) but must still pass the Senate and be signed into law by the President.
1 – Continuous monitoring / automation of Everything -FISMA 2013, requires continuous monitoring (automation) and regular cyberthreat assessments for better oversight to federal organizations.
Security Incidents – Security incidents are automatically detected with tools like McAfee Network Security Platform (IPS), Source Fire SNORT (IDS), McAfee ePO and Cisco IDS. With the right people to manage the signatures and the configuration, theses are great products. Once they are detected you can then do incident handling with something like Remedy. FISMA 2013: “with a frequency sufficient to support risk-based security decisions, automated and continuous monitoring, when possible, for detecting, reporting, and responding to security incidents, consistent with standards and guidelines issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology”
Information Systems Security – Vulnerability scanners such as Retina and Tenable’s Nessuss are great with automatically detecting security controls and policies within an agency. Change Auditor and other tools can detect changes the GPO’s within a domain. FISMA 2013: “with a frequency sufficient to support risk-based security decisions, automated and continuous monitoring, when possible, for testing and evaluation of the effectiveness and compliance of information security policies, procedures, and practices, including…” Security controls
Risk Level & Impact of Harm – McAfee ESM and ArcSight are good and pulling in the data from security tools that detect security events, evaluating the risk level and giving an measurement of the possible harm of and asset. FISMA 2013: “automated and continuous monitoring, when possible, of the risk and magnitude of the harm that could result from the disruption or unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification, or destruction of information and information systems that support the operations and assets of the agency;
Detection/Correlation – this one could be grouped in with Security Incident, but Security Incident gets more into incident handling. Also, ArcSight, McAfee, LogRythm, LogLogic, AlienVault and other Security Incident Event Managers do Correlation automatically. FISMA 2013: “efficiently detect, correlate, respond to, contain, mitigate, and remediate incidents that impair the adequate security of the information systems of more than one agency. To the extent practicable, the capability shall be continuous and technically automated.”
2 – CISO positions and responsibilities backed by Law – The amendment requires each department head to be held accountable for IT. In DoD Information Assurance Risk Management Framework (DIARMF) this department director is known as the Authorizing Official (aka Designated Authorizing Authority in DIACAP). FISMA 2013 require the AO to have an Chief Information Security Officer. This is a position that is already assigned under Risk Management Framework. The DoD has referred to this position as Senior Information Assurance Officer in DIACAP. Under FISMA 2013, CISO/SIAO must have must have qualifications to implement agency-wide security programs for which they are responsible
and report directly to the AO.
The CISCO/SIAO will also have responsibility of Automated Security systems. The CISO will be responsible for development, maintaining and overseeing these automated systems.
FISMA 2013 is targeted to minimize the risk of cyberattacks by conducting pentesting.
Overall, they made automation a requirement, which is the direction the field of information security has already been following and put some more emphasis on the CISO. The amendments highlight the changes from DIACAP to DIARMF as many of the changes are already in the NIST 800 series that DIARMF is based on.
My greatest skill is procrastination. I really am the best, most skilled procrastinator I know. It takes all of my will power to stay consistent with anything, including this blog, which is why (among other things) I am not banking like Darren Rowse or Steve Pav, two of my favorite bloggers.
YOU SEE, I am such a good procrastinator that I JUST procrastinated on getting to the REAL subject of this article, security, IA updates.
A fellow IA Analyst wrote me with questions that got right to the heart of IA… change.
She asked about AFI 33-202.
And I said:
Right as I felt I had mastered the contents of 33-202, the airforce moved to 33-210 (to replace all its C&A stuff). I believe 33-202 is now obsolete and replaced with 33-200 & 33-202 and others.. last time I was with the AF, anyway.
What about IT LEAN?
As for IT Lean, you can find that on AF Knowledge Now site and I think they have links to it on EITDR. If you are interested in IT Lean you’ll be REALLY interested in 33-210:
But if you are working with the Air Force and want more on the IT LEAN process you should be digging into AFCAP, Air Force Certification & Accreditation Program, an AF version of IT Lean.
A lot of people also ask me to send them a copy of the CNSSI 12-53. But it is actually OUT. Its the CNSSI 1253. I, personally, have not had any clear direction (currently NO direction) on how to start moving some of the CNSSI to the systems I work on. I suspect that the Govt. will start this within the next couple of years and start phasing out DIACAP.. but who the hell knows what a bureaucracy of their size will do next!
Lastly, my fellow IA Analyst asked me about EITDR
and I said:
You’ll find the EITDR POCs on the Air Force Portal or Knowledge Now. Log on to the Air Force Portal (if you don’t have an account get one.. you may have to get sponsor by the Govt to get it). Once on the AF Portal search for EITDR and they’ll have tons of stuff on it. Waaaaay more stuff than you want to read. You’ll also find the person you need to start the EITDR process with.
2014 – Update, DIACAP has been upgraded to Risk Management Framework for DoD IT (aka DIARMF). Its base on the NIST SP 800-37, Risk Management Framework for Federal IT and takes from CNSSI 1253.
Risk Management Framework for DoD IT takes all IA Controls (Security Controls) from NIST SP 800-53.
New DIACAP Certification & Accreditation IA Controls
The DoD has had the same IA controls since DoD 8510.1-M, controls since DoD 8510.1-M, Department of Defense Information Technology System Certification & Accreditation Process (DITSCAP), July 31, 2000 – it was developed late last century.
The DoD has a total of 157 IA controls spread across 8 subject areas in 4 classes:
DC – Security Design & Configuration
IA – Identification and Authentication
EC – Enclave & Computing
EB – Enclave Boundary Defense
PE – Physical & Environmental
PR – Personnel
CO – Continuity
VI – Vulnerability
There is a huge change coming in certification & accreditation for the DoD coming. The IA controls are being expanded and changed. The last two DIACAP classes I’ve been to mentioned that there is a big change coming. Essentially, all the IA Controls (security controls, safeguards, countermeasures.. whatever your organization is calling them) are getting expanded. All federal organizations will have security controls that look more like what is in the National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 800-53. This is all being placed in the Committee on National Security Systems Instruction (CNSSI) 1253. As of 25 June 2009, the CNSSI 1253 is still in draft.
The draft has 17 families & identifiers in three security control classes.
TABLE 1: SECURITY CONTROL CLASSES, FAMILIES, AND IDENTIFIERS
IDENTIFIER FAMILY CLASS
AC Access Control Technical
AT Awareness and Training Operational
AU Audit and Accountability Technical
CA Certification, Accreditation, and Security Assessments Management
CM Configuration Management Operational
CP Contingency Planning Operational
IA Identification and Authentication Technical
IR Incident Response Operational
MA Maintenance Operational
MP Media Protection Operational
PE Physical and Environmental Protection Operational
PL Planning Management
PS Personnel Security Operational
RA Risk Assessment Management
SA System and Services Acquisition Management
SC System and Communications Protection Technical
The CNSSI has about 500 controls with pretty good granularity.
One of the really cool thing about 1253 was the security control mapping. It’s a table that matches up 800-53, DCID 6/3 and DODI 8500.2.
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UPDAT: 2014 – Risk Management Framework for DOD IT released.
Days 4 & 5 bring the DIACAP/AFCAP Essentials Class to a close. The
biggest things I learned were: CNSSI 4009 is the the official glossary of DOD IA, there is a big difference between theory, policy and practice, Agents of the Certifying Authority (ACA) are official validators and there is a difference between acquisition Mission criticality and IA MAC levels.
Stuff I learned from people in the class:
-AFCA is changing its name (to what?)
DOD is going to put the new IA controls in NCSSI 12-53 (currently in draft)
-a lot of what I need in there is in NIST 800-53
Marines use something called Exacta
Site called securitycritics.org
33-202 is now completely irrelevant and obsolete (not even mentioned ONCE in the class)
Feds call Certification &Accreditation (C&A) “Security authorization”
NIST SP 800-37
Validator Activities & Issue Accreditation Decision
Make certification determination
CA/DAA Package review
Validation procedures were discussed. On day five, we looked at how the validators look at a system.
I thought is was interesting. It should help me get through the EITDR/DIACAP process easier.
Maintain Situational Awareness
Maintain IA Posture
UPDAT: 2014 – Risk Management Framework for DOD IT released.
Day 3 heats up a little. We start talking about what it take to actually get validated. The DIACAP Implementers Guide & the DIACAP Validators guide is opened up and reviewed. I think we all learned a little something during this discussion because there have been some challenges with this. Unfortunately, we don’t to far into the validator stuff.
Assemble DIACAP Team
Registered System/System Information Profile
Assign IA Controls
Initiate DIACAP Implementation Plan
UPDAT: 2014 – Risk Management Framework for DOD IT released.
Day 1 & 2 have been all about the very basics of DIACAP. Were introduced to the terminologies, key players of the C&A process and basically given the big picture. Like I said, GREAT for beginners, but just lots of theory and refresher if you’ve been doing C&A since DITSCAP.
Day 1 &2:
Getting the Big Picture
DIACAP/AFCAP Policy & Terminology
Roles and Responsibilities for the C&A process
Accreditation & Approval to Connect
Homework: review terminology
In between longer breaks, during lunch and just before class we sneak in episode of the The IT Crowd. Its the first time I’ve watched it so its a real treat for me. Hilarious show.